Part Β: The Situation
CHAPTER 5 - www.esc.guide/turkey
The Ottoman Empire
Turkish Armed Forces Foundation
Defence and Aerospace Industry Manufacturers Association
Aviation, Aerospace & Technology Festival
United States of Turkic World
Economic Cooperation Organization
Group of Twenty (twenty major economies)
World Petroleum Congress
Islamic Development Bank
Combined Maritime Forces
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Black Sea Economic Cooperation
Turkey encountered an arms embargo after Cyprus Peace Operation in 1974, and took the first steps for a modern national defense industry in order to reduce the negative effects of the embargo. “Turkish Land Force Support Foundation” was established in the same year. The great public enthusiasm of those years encouraged a significant amount of donation to newly-established Land, Naval and Air Force Support Foundations and paved the way for ratification of laws that allows such foundations to generate private revenues.
In order to reduce foreign dependency in defense industry, investments were made in defense industry when Turkish Aircraft Industries Corporation (TAI) was founded under the Ministry of Industry and Technology in 1973, which was followed by establishment of companies such as ASELSAN (1975), ISBIR (1978), ASPILSAN (1981), and HAVELSAN (1982) by the foundations mentioned above.
The Undersecretariat for Defence Industries (SSM) was founded in 1985 as the Defence Industry Development and Support Administration Office (SaGeB) under the Ministry of National Defense in accordance with Law No. 3238.
The SaGeB's tasks were to set policies regarding the establishment of the infrastructure of the defence industry with the authority and responsibility to apply these policies. Subsequently, the SaGeB was restructured as the Undersecretariat for Defence Industries in 1989.
SSM was affiliated to the Presidency of Republic in December 2017 and renamed as Presidency of Defence Industries (SSB) in July 2018.
5.4. Turkish Weapons Exports (SIPRI)
Το Δόγμα της Γαλάζιας Πατρίδας… καλά κρατεί!
Μπορεί κάποιες πολιτικές να είναι «επεκτατικές», μπορεί κάθε τόσο να υπάρχουν «προβλήματα», μπορεί, μπορεί, μπορεί...
Το μόνο σίγουρο είναι ότι το Δόγμα βασίζεται στην Αμυντική Βιομηχανία της Τουρκίας.
Παρόλο που στην Ελλάδα τα τελευταία χρόνια έγινε γνωστό το brain-drain, η γείτονα χώρα έγινε ένας πόλος έλξης «μυαλών» και όχι απλά πτυχιούχων.
Όλα αυτά ξεκίνησαν με το εμπάργκο όπλων που έκανε ο «πλανήτης» μετά την Εισβολή της Τουρκίας στην Κύπρο.
Δηλαδή, αυτή η απειλή, αυτό το αδύνατο σημείο, αυτή η «τιμωρία», ήταν η αφορμή να σταθεί η Τουρκία στα πόδια της.
The TEKNOFEST Aerospace and Technology Festival is organized under the leadership of the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Industry and Technology and the Turkish Technology Team Foundation (T3),which aims at making a Move of National Technology and transforming Turkey into a technology producing society, with the support of Turkey’s major institutions and companies.
Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is an intergovernmental regional organization encompassing countries from Europe, Caucuses and Central Asia, Middle East and South Asia with more than 460 million inhabitants and over 8 million square kilometers connecting Russia to the Persian Gulf and China to Europe.
The overall objective of the Organization is the sustainable economic development of its Member States and the Region as a whole.
The United Nations is part of the UN system, which, in addition to the UN itself, comprises many funds, programmes and specialized agencies, each of which have their own area of work, leadership and budget.
The programmes and funds are financed through voluntary rather than assessed contributions. The Specialized Agencies are independent international organizations funded by both voluntary and assessed contributions.
The UN coordinates its work with these separate UN system entities, which cooperate with the Organization to help it achieve its goals.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is the second largest organization after the United Nations with a membership of 57 states spread over four continents. The Organization is the collective voice of the Muslim world. It endeavors to safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony among various people of the world.
The Organization was established upon a decision of the historical summit which took place in Rabat, Kingdom of Morocco on 12th Rajab 1389 Hijra (25 September 1969) following the criminal arson of Al-Aqsa Mosque in occupied Jerusalem.
The G20 is the international forum that brings together the world’s major economies. Its members account for more than 80% of world GDP, 75% of global trade and 60% of the population of the planet.
The forum has met every year since 1999 and includes, since 2008, a yearly Summit, with the participation of the respective Heads of State and Government.
In addition to the Summit, ministerial meetings, Sherpa meetings (in charge of carrying out negotiations and building consensus among Leaders), working groups and special events are organized throughout the year.
To be recognised as the premier forum promoting an enhanced understanding and image of the role of oil and gas in the current and future energy mix and its contribution to sustainable development for all.
• an enhanced understanding of issues and challenges
• networking opportunities in a global forum
• a platform for dialogue
• co-operation (partnerships) with other organisations
• an opportunity to showcase the industry’s technical achievements
• a forum for developing international business opportunities
• initiatives for recruiting and retaining expertise and skills to the industry
• promoting best practises in the production and consumption of cleaner energy resources
• a clear picture of the continued role and importance of oil and gas in the global energy mix
Science, technology and innovation are continuously recognized as strategic drivers of economic growth. With the right tools, and the right environment, innovators and the business community can tap in to the potential of STI to develop innovative solutions to the development issues facing their communities.
We launched the first ever online platform for the developing world, Engage, which aims to connect innovations with market opportunities and funding. To further ensure that innovators, start-ups and corporations have access to a steady flow of financing facilities, the IsDB established the Transform fund in tandem with Engage. This $500m fund is one of the largest of its kind and specifically focused on finding innovative solutions to global development challenges.
The Combined Maritime Forces (CMF) is a multinational maritime partnership, which exists to uphold the International Rules-Based Order (IRBO) by countering illicit non-state actors on the high seas and promoting security, stability, and prosperity across approximately 3.2 million square miles of international waters, which encompass some of the world’s most important shipping lanes.
WHAT WE DO
CMF’s main focus areas are counter-narcotics, counter-smuggling, suppressing piracy, encouraging regional cooperation, and engaging with regional and other partners to strengthen relevant capabilities in order to improve overall security and stability, and promoting a safe maritime environment free from illicit non-state actors. When requested, CMF assets at sea will also respond to environmental and humanitarian incidents.
Security in our daily lives is key to our well-being. NATO’s purpose is to guarantee the freedom and security of its members through political and military means.
POLITICAL - NATO promotes democratic values and enables members to consult and cooperate on defence and security-related issues to solve problems, build trust and, in the long run, prevent conflict.
MILITARY - NATO is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes. If diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military power to undertake crisis-management operations. These are carried out under the collective defence clause of NATO's founding treaty - Article 5 of the Washington Treaty or under a United Nations mandate, alone or in cooperation with other countries and international organisations.
A number of OSCE field operations are active in the area of arms control. They co-operate with national governments and international organizations. Their activities include:
Strengthening small arms and light weapons and conventional ammunition stockpile management, including destruction;
Supporting national small arms control mechanisms;
Assisting with the rehabilitation of areas contaminated with explosives;
Assisting in disposing of dangerous chemicals stored in military premises, including mélange, a highly toxic and volatile rocket fuel component;
Contributing to national initiatives to collect illegal small arms and light weapons;
Supporting initiatives to decrease the illegal possession of weapons;
Organizing training and awareness-raising campaigns.
to act in a spirit of friendship and good neighborliness and enhance mutual respect and confidence, dialogue and cooperation among the Member States;
to further develop and diversify bilateral and multilateral cooperation on the basis of the principles and rules of international law;
to act for improving the business environment and promoting individual and collective initiative of the enterprises and companies directly involved in the process of economic cooperation;
to develop economic collaboration in a manner not contravening the international obligations of the Member States including those deriving from their membership to international organizations or institutions of an integrative or other nature and not preventing the promotion of their relations with third parties.